Created Wednesday 30 January 2013
The word 'Christ' comes from the Greek word "Christos" which is simply the Greek translation of the Hebrew word "Mashiach" (or 'Messiah' as it is translated into English). It simply means "Anointed One" and was used to indicate somebody confirmed by God in a special position. In the Hebrew Scriptures ("Old Testament") the high priest, some kings and prophets were anointed to indicate their position as chosen by God.
Throughout the Hebrew Scriptures there are promises of a special Person who will be sent by God in future. His ancestry, where He will be born, what He will do and even when He will be born is described by various prophets. Sometimes it is not straight-forward prophecies, but rather allusions and types of this special person. Although the title "Messiah" or Anointed One is only used in a few of these promises, the picture becomes clearer as more and more prophecies extend those that were given before.
I am not going to write down what the prophecy says in English, but simply number them and link to the Scriptures where they are found. I assume that you would see the messianic significance for yourself.
Because there are many types and allusions in addition to the straightforward prophecies, I have used as system of symbols to indicate how I consider the different passages. This is to avoid the charge of "reading things into scripture" that is not actually written there. In addition, I should mention that it is clear from many prophecies that have been already fulfilled, that there are sometimes a partial fulfillment in the lifetime of the prophet himself, as well as a long-term future "full" fulfillment (e.g. the promise to Abraham when he still had no children that his decendants would be as many as the stars and the sea-sand - this was partially fulfilled when Isaac was born, but only fulfilled in full much later). This is also true for many messianic prophecies.
SS: These will be "foreshadowings" which are not immediately recognizable as prophesy, or as being about Messiah, but which illustrates some aspect of the Messianic promises nonetheless. Not all of these will be mentioned.
S: A foreshadowing of Messiah. Although not clearly prophetic, it fits in with the other prophecies which are clearly messianic.
P: A clear prophecy, but not immediately seen as being about the messiah. Only in the context of other prophecies does the messianic implications become clear.
MP: A clearly messianic promise. Although the word "Anointed" might not be used, the special status of the person described is nonetheless clear. Most commonly accepted Messianic prophecies will fit into this group.
DP: A very clear prophecy that is very difficult to explain unless it talks about Jesus as the Messiah. These are the kind of prophecies that almost appear as if they were written after the fact. It is therefore important to remember that we have in the Dead Sea Scrolls all the books of the Hebrew Scriptures (except the book of Esther), copies written down from 250 to 25 BC already.
I should also mention that in New Testament times they did not make this distinction between forshadowings and actual prophesies, since all Scripture was considered as prophetic to a certain extend.
(1) S: Gen.3:15, Num.24:17 - Crushing the snake's head
(2) P: Gen.12:1-3 - Blessing to all nations
(3) SS: Gen.22:2 - Take your son, your only son whom you love...
(4) P: Gen.22:15-18 - Because you have done this, ... in Abraham's offspring will all nations be blessed
(5) P: Gen.26:2-5 - In Isaac's offspring will all nations be blessed
(6) P: Gen.28:14 - In Israel (Jacob) and his offspring will all families of the earth be blessed
(7) P (MP?): Gen.49:9-12, Num.24:17, Ezek.21:25-27, Zech.6:11-13 - Judah will rule, until He comes to whom the judgement belongs
(8) SS: Exo.4:22-23, Exo.12:5-13, 46, Gen.9:4, Deut.12:23, Lev.17:11 & Ex.29:21 - Israel saved through the blood of the passover lamb
(9) SS: Exo.23:20-23 (See also (14) below) - The Angel of the LORD
(10) SS: Num.21:4-9, Ex.17:15 - The banner, the copper snake through whom people were saved by looking at it
(11) MP: Num.24:17 (See (1) above) - A star and scepter out of Israel crush the head of Moab and all war-loving rebels
(12) P: Deut.18:15-19 (cf. Deut.34:10-12) - A prophet like Moses
(13) SS: The book of Joshua as fulfillment of the earlier promises (see also Zech.6:11-13) (Joshua = Yehoshua = Yeshua is the Hebrew name of Jesus, meaning "salvation" or "YHWH saves")
(14) S: Judg.13:8-20 - The Angel of the LORD whose name is Wonderful
(15) S: 1 Sam.2:10 - First mention of the word 'Messiah' (Anointed) as God's king
(16) P: 2 Sam.7:12-16 - The seed of David, Son of God, repeated in 1 Chron.17:11-14
(17) SS: 1 Kings 4: 20-34 - Solomon foreshadowing the coming Messianic kingdom. 1 Kings 6:1, 11-13 - He builds a place for God to stay among His people.
(18) SS: Job 16:19-21 - Job ask God to plead with God as a son of man.
(19) SS: Job 19:25 - Job's Redeemer lives and will stand over the dust at last.
(20) S: Ps.2 (See also (7) and (11) above).- The Messiah, Son of the LORD
(21) SS: Ps.16, Ps.20, Ps.21 - The Psalmist/Messiah saved from death
(22) S: Ps.22 - Words of Jesus on the cross... coincidence?
(23) SS & MP: Ps.23, Eze.34 - The good Shepherd, the future David, the servant of the Lord.
(24) S: Ps.45 - The Kingly Messiah, anointed God by God.
(25) S: Ps.72 - A prayer for the King to fulfill (4), (16), (20) and judge the poor in righteousness (cf. (23)).
(26) S: Ps.89, Ps.132 - Reminding the Lord of His promises to David ((16) and (20) above).
(27) S: Ps.110 - A Priest forever of the order of Melchizedek.
(28) SS: Ps.118 - The precious cornerstone (who was rejected by the builders) (see also Is.28:16)
(29) SS: Ps.145, Dan.7:9-14 - The eternal Kingdom of God - see (25) above.
(30) SS: Prov.8:12-36 - Wisdom, before all creation, through whom God created everything (See also Gen.1:1-3 and John 1:1-5, 10-14)
(31) S: Prov.30:4-6 - The Creator of everything has a Son (see (20) above). What is His Name and what is the Name if His Son?
(32) P: Is.2:1-5, Mic.4:1-4, Is.56:6-8, Zech.8:20-22 - Jerusalem in the latter days: Many nations shall come and the word of the Lord shall go forth out of Zion. See also (20), (24), and (25) above.
(33) MP: Is.7:14, Is.9:1-7, Is.10, Is.11 - The Son, the Shoot / Branch of David, God with us (Immanuel), Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God,
Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace on Whom the Spirit of the Lord will rest.
(34) S: Is.8:10-18, Ps.118:19-26, Is.28:16, Zech.3:8-9 - A stone of offence and a rock of stumbling for the two houses of Israel, the precious cornerstone rejected by the builders (see (28) above), a firm foundation, engraved with seven eyes, the Branch, the Servant of the Lord.
(35) P: Is.24:21-23, Is.25:6-9, Is.26:19-27:1, Is.28:5-6, 10-17, Is.29:13-15, 18-24, Is.30:26-33 (see Is.9:1-2), Is.32:1-5, 15-18, Is.33:5-6,17-24, Is.35:3-10 - The Day of the LORD, that day...
(36) P: Is.40:3-5 - The highway in the wilderness
(37) MP: Is.42:1-10 - The Servant of the LORD. Zech.3:8-9, Is.11, Is.29:18, Is.61:1-3 Also Is.49:1-13, (see (13) above, Zech.6:11-13 and (23) above), continued in Is.50:4-10, and Is.52:6-53:12 (see (1) above, Zech.8 and Zech.9). Is.61:1-3 - Annointed to declare the year of the Lord's favor.
(38) S: Is.55 - The steadfast sure covenant, the steadfast love for David (see (26) above).
(39) SS: Is.63:9-10 - The LORD, the Angel of His presence (see (14) above) and His Holy Spirit.
(40) SS: Jer.19 - Tophet, the Valley of the son of Hinnom, before the entrance of the Potsherd Gate of Jerusalem, will be called Valley of Slaughter. (cf. Zech.11)
(41) MP: Jer.23 - The Righteous Branch of David (see (32), (33), (24), (25)) who will save all Israel (see (37), also (23)).
(42) MP: Jer.30, 31, 32, 33 - The New Covenant (see also (23), (35) - the Shepherd, (33) and (41) above).
(43) P: Ezek.11:17-20, Ezek.16:60-63, Ezek.36:24-27- The Eternal Covenant (see (42) and (37)).
(44) MP: Ezek.21:25-27 - No more crown in Judah until He to whom the judgment belongs, comes (see (7), (24), (25), (33) en (41) above).
(45) MP: Ezek.34:11-16, 23-31 - One Shepherd (see (23), (37), (42), (43)).
(46) MP: Ezek.37:12-14, 21-28 - One King, one Shepherd, an eternal covenant of peace (see (42), (43), (45), (37), (23) (42), also (16), (24), (25), (26), (29), (33) and (41)).
(47) P: Dan.2 - The eternal Kingdom of God replacing the empires of the world (starting in the time of the Roman empire). Dan.7 - The Son of Man reigning forever.
(48) MP: Dan.9 - The Messiah cut off (see Is.53:8) before the city and the sanctuary in Jerusalem is destroyed (by the Romans in 70 AD).
(49) P: Hos.1, Hos.2, Hos.3 - The Lord will save Judah by Himself, without weapons, only after many days without king and temple will they return to the Lord and to their King David in the last days.
(50) S: Hos.11:1 - Israel personified as God's son (see Is.49:2), called out of Egypt.
(51) P: Hos.13:14 - Israel will be ransomed from death.
(52) P: Joel 2 and 3 - The day of the LORD.
(53) P: Micah 2:12-13 - Israel will be return and serve their King.
(54) MP: Micah 4 and 5 - The last days.
(55) P: Zeph.3 - Israel will return.
(56) P: Hag.2 - Future glory of the second temple in Jerusalem.
(57) P: Zech.2 - Many nations will join the LORD.
(58) MP: Zech.3 - The Branch, the S/ervant of the LORD.
(59) MP: Zech.6 - Behold the man, crowned Yeshua. (See (13) above)
(60) P: Zech:8:20-22 - The nations will come to Jerusalem to worship the LORD.
(61) MP: Zech.9:9-17 - The King of Jerusalem, coming on a donkey.
(62) S: Zech.11 - The 30 pieces of silver as the price for the good shepherd of Israel thrown into the temple.
(63) P: Zech.12-13 - Pouring out an spirit of grace and pleas for mercy, when they look on Me, whom they have pierced.
(64) P: Zech.14 - Jerusalem surrounded... the day of the LORD. (See (35) and (52) above).
(65) MP: Mal.3 and 4 - Elia, the messenger of the LORD to prepare the way for Him.